Addiction, also known as substance use disorder (SUD), is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a chronic, relapsing brain disorder. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines addiction as a complex condition, “a brain disease manifested by compulsive substance use despite harmful consequences.” When an individual is diagnosed with substance use disorder and another co-occurring mental health illness it is referred to as a dual diagnosis. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) assert that nearly half of the people “who have a mental [health] disorder will also have a substance use disorder at some point in their lives and vice versa.” Addiction is most associated with the following mental disorders:
- Depression: As explained by the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is “characterized by persistent sadness and a lack of interest or pleasure in previously rewarding or enjoyable activities,” resulting in significant impairment in one’s daily life. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry asserts that more than one-third of Americans who struggle with substance abuse also suffer from depression. Depression is also three times more likely to develop in people with substance use disorder, than the general population.
- Anxiety disorders: The DSM-5 lists five different types of anxiety disorders which include: generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia). According to the American Psychiatric Association, close to thirty percent of adults in the US struggle with an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.
- Eating disorders: In a very broad sense, eating disorders are characterized by severe disturbances in people’s eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. The three main types eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder (BED). Studies show that 50 percent of people with eating disorders also abuse drugs or alcohol. Those afflicted are five times more likely to abuse substances than the general population. Individuals who abuse drugs and/ or alcohol, similarly, are up to 11 times more likely to have eating disorders.
- Personality disorders: as defined by the APA, personality disorders are “long-term patterns of behavior and inner experiences that differs significantly from what is expected.” The DSM-5 list ten standalone personality disorders and based on similar characteristics, each personality disorder is grouped into one of three categories (cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C). Research has found that between 65 to 90 percent of patients being treated for substance abuse have at least one co-occurring personality disorder.
For Information and Support
If you are concerned for yourself or a loved one regarding substance abuse and/ or addiction, we recommend reaching out for help as soon as possible. If left untreated, substance abuse can result in long lasting and potentially life-threatening consequences. Keep in mind: you are not alone! There is an entire network of professionals that are available to help and support you and your loved one throughout the recovery process. The earlier you seek support, the sooner your loved one can return to a happy, healthy, and fulfilling life.
Please do not hesitate to reach out with any questions regarding our specific program at Haven House Addiction Treatment and/ or general substance abuse and/ or addiction treatment related information. Our highly trained staff is readily available to discuss how we might best be able to help you and your loved one. We can be reached by phone at 424-258-6792. You are also welcomed to contact anytime us via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.